The Arduino project was started in 2005. The aim was to serve it as a tool for students at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea, Italy. The other motive was to provide a low-cost and easy way for beginners and professionals to create such devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators.
It is an open-source microcontroller board that is based on ATmega328P Microcontroller.
shield /ʃiːld/ scudo, schermo, proteggere, schermare
Arduino boards are mainly based on two families of microcontrollers: AVR and ARM.
AVR a family of microcontrollers developed since 1996 by Atmel. wp yt
These are modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single-chip microcontrollers. AVR was one of the first microcontroller families to use on-chip flash memory for program storage, as opposed to PROM, EPROM, or EEPROM used by other microcontrollers at the time.
Used by the first Arduino in 2005.